1 common black-fruited shrub or small tree of Europe and Asia; fruit used for wines and jellies [syn: bourtree, black elder, common elder, European elder, Sambucus nigra]
2 berrylike fruit of an elder used for e.g. wines and jellies
- Dutch: vlierbes
Sambucus (Elder or Elderberry) is a genus of between 5 and 30 species of shrubs or small trees (two species herbaceous), formerly treated in the honeysuckle family Caprifoliaceae, but now shown by genetic evidence to be correctly classified in the moschatel family Adoxaceae. The genus is native to temperate to subtropical regions of both the Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere; the genus is more widespread in the Northern Hemisphere, with Southern Hemisphere occurrence restricted to parts of Australasia and South America.
The leaves are opposite, pinnate, with 5-9 leaflets (rarely 3 or 11), each leaf 5-30 cm long, the leaflets with a serrated margin. They bear large clusters of small white or cream coloured flowers in the late spring, that are followed by clusters of small red, bluish or black (rarely yellow or white) berries. Species have lifespans between 80 and 100 years.
The berries are a very valuable food resource for many birds. Elders are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Brown-tail, Buff Ermine, Dot Moth, Emperor Moth, The Engrailed, Swallow-tailed Moth and The V-pug. The crushed foliage and immature fruit have a strong fetid smell.
Valley elderberry longhorn beetle in California are very often found around red or blue elderberry bushes. Females lay their eggs on the bark. Larvae hatch and burrow into the stems.
Dead elder wood is the preferred habitat of the mushroom Auricularia auricula-judae, also known as "Judas' ear fungus".
- The common elder complex is variously treated as a single
species Sambucus nigra found in the warmer parts of Europe and North
America with several regional varieties or subspecies, or else
as a group of several similar species. The flowers are in flat
corymbs, and the berries
are black to glaucous blue; they are larger shrubs, reaching
tall, occasionally small trees up to 15 m tall and with a stem diameter of
up to 30–60 cm.
- Sambucus australis (Southern Elder; temperate eastern South America)
- Sambucus canadensis (American Elder; eastern North America; with blue-black berries)
- Sambucus cerulea (syn. S. caerulea, S. glauca; Blueberry Elder; western North America; with blue berries)
- Sambucus javanica (Chinese Elder; southeastern Asia)
- Sambucus mexicana (Mexican Elder; Mexico and Central America; with blue-black berries)
- Sambucus nigra (Elder or Black Elder; Europe and western Asia; with black berries)
- Sambucus palmensis (Canary Islands Elder; Canary Islands; with black berries)
- Sambucus peruviana (Peruvian Elder; northwest South America; with black berries)
- Sambucus simpsonii (Florida Elder; southeastern United States; with blue-black berries)
- Sambucus peruviana (Andean Elder; northern South America; with blue-black berries)
- Sambucus velutina (Velvet Elder; southwestern North America; with blue-black berries)
- The red-berried elder complex is variously treated as a single
species Sambucus racemosa found throughout the colder parts of the
Hemisphere with several regional varieties or subspecies, or
else as a group of several similar species. The flowers are in
rounded panicles, and the berries are bright red; they are smaller
shrubs, rarely exceeding 3–4 m tall.
- Sambucus callicarpa (Pacific Coast Red Elder; west coast of North America)
- Sambucus chinensis (Chinese Red Elder; eastern Asia, in mountains)
- Sambucus latipinna (Korean Red Elder; Korea, southeast Siberia)
- Sambucus microbotrys (Mountain Red Elder; southwest North America, in mountains)
- Sambucus pubens (American Red Elder; northern North America)
- Sambucus racemosa (European Red Elder or Red-berried Elder; northern Europe, northwest Asia)
- Sambucus sieboldiana (Japanese Red Elder; Japan and Korea)
- Sambucus tigranii (Caucasus Red Elder; southwest Asia, in mountains)
- Sambucus williamsii (North China Red Elder; northeast Asia)
- The Australian elder group comprises two species from Australasia. The flowers are in rounded panicles, and the berries white or yellow; they are shrubs growing to 3 m high.
- The dwarf elders are, by contrast to the other species, herbaceous plants, producing new stems each year from a perennial root system; they grow to 1.5–2 m tall, each stem terminating in a large flat umbel which matures into a dense cluster of glossy berries.
UsesBoth flowers and berries can be made into elderberry wine, and in Hungary an elderberry brandy is produced (requiring 50 kg of fruit to produce 1 litre of brandy). The alcoholic drink sambuca is not made with elderberries. The berries are best not eaten raw as they are mildly poisonous, causing vomiting, particularly if eaten unripe. The mild cyanide toxicity is destroyed by cooking. The berries can also be made into jam, pies or Pontack sauce. All green parts of the plant are poisonous, containing cyanogenic glycosides (Vedel & Lange 1960). The berries are also used in the St-Germain Liquor.http://www.stgermain.fr/
The flowers may be used to make an herbal tea, which is believed as a remedy for colds and fever. In Europe, the flowers are made into a syrup or cordial (in Romanian: Socată), which is diluted with water before drinking. The popularity of this traditional drink has recently encouraged some commercial soft drink producers to introduce elderflower-flavoured drinks (Fanta Shokata). The flowers can also be used to make a mildly alcoholic, sparkling elderflower 'champagne', and can be dipped into a light batter and then fried to make elderflower fritters.
In Scandinavia, elder berry and elder flower juice is commonly consumed as saft - concentrated juice to be mixed with water. In Scandinavia and Germany, soup made from the elder berry is a traditional meal.
FolkloreThe Elder Tree was supposed to ward off evil influence and give protection from witches, a popular belief held in widely-distant countries. If an elder tree was cut down, a spirit known as the Elder Mother would be released and take her revenge. The tree could only safely be cut while chanting a rhyme to the Elder Mother.
- Vedel, H., & Lange, J. (1960). Trees and Bushes in Wood and Hedgerow. Methuen & Co Ltd.
- Germplasm Resources Information Network: Sambucus
- National Institute of Health - Medline page on Sambucus nigra L.
- Elder bush info and recipes from the BBC Guide to Life, the Universe, and Everything website.
- Grieve, 'A Modern Herbal' (1931)
- A Philatelic Celebration of the International Hans Christian Andersen Year (2005)
- elderberries.com Elderberry, elderflower, and why they matter. (2008)
elderberry in Bulgarian: Бъз
elderberry in Danish: Hyld
elderberry in German: Holunder
elderberry in Spanish: Sambucus
elderberry in Esperanto: Sambuko
elderberry in French: Sureau
elderberry in Upper Sorbian: Małka bozanka
elderberry in Croatian: Bazga
elderberry in Icelandic: Yllir
elderberry in Italian: Sambucus
elderberry in Georgian: ანწლი
elderberry in Lithuanian: Šeivamedis
elderberry in Hungarian: Bodza
elderberry in Dutch: Vlier (plant)
elderberry in Japanese: ニワトコ
elderberry in Norwegian Nynorsk: Hyll
elderberry in Polish: Bez
elderberry in Portuguese: Sabugueiro (botânica)
elderberry in Romanian: Soc
elderberry in Quechua: Rayan
elderberry in Russian: Бузина
elderberry in Slovenian: Bezeg
elderberry in Swedish: Fläder
elderberry in Turkish: Mürver